Assessment 2020 Task Force Members
Harlan Krumholz, Chair
Dr. Krumholz, a board certified internist and cardiovascular disease specialist, is the Harold H. Hines Jr. Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale University School of Medicine, where he is Director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. He is also the Director of the Yale-New Haven Hospital Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation. His research is focused on determining optimal clinical and population-based strategies for improving the prevention, treatment and outcome of cardiovascular disease. The research and its application has contributed to elevating the quality of practice, eliminating disparities, defining new treatment standards, improving professional standards and guiding health care policy.
Dr. Krumholz is an elected member of the Association of American Physicians, the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Institute of Medicine. He is also an at-large member of the American Board of Internal Medicine Board of Directors. He was named an American Heart Association Distinguished Scientist.
Dr. Krumholz earned his medical degree from Harvard Medical School and a Master’s degree in health policy and management at the Harvard School of Public Health. He trained in Internal Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco and in Cardiology at Beth Israel in Boston.
Dr. Baron, board certified in internal medicine and geriatrics, is President and CEO of the American Board of Internal Medicine and the ABIM Foundation. Dr. Baron was a former Chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine’s Board of Directors.
Previously, Dr. Baron served as Group Director of Seamless Care Models at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Innovation Center, where he led efforts related to Accountable Care Organizations and primary care. Prior to his CMS appointment, Dr. Baron practiced general internal medicine and geriatrics at Greenhouse Internists, P.C., located in Philadelphia. Greenhouse has been a pioneer in the comprehensive adoption of electronic health records in the small-practice environment. Until joining the federal government, Dr. Baron also served on the Board of the National Quality Forum and their Health Information Technology Advisory Committee, as well as the Standards Committee of the National Committee for Quality Assurance.
Dr. Baron served as Chief Medical Officer of Health Partners, a not-for-profit Medicaid HMO set up by four teaching hospitals in Philadelphia, from 1988 to 1996. He was the architect of the Best Clinical and Administrative Practices program, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Center for Health Care Strategies, working with medical leadership of Medicaid health plans around the country in learning collaboratives to improve the quality of care for their members. This program reached plans serving more than half of the Medicaid managed care population in the United States.
Dr. Baron received an English degree from Harvard College and his medical degree from Yale University. He completed house staff training at New York University-Bellevue Medical Center and served a three-year obligation in the National Health Service Corps in rural Tennessee.
Dr. Berkowitz, a board certified internist and hematologist, is the Eunice Bernhard Distinguished Professor and Associate Chair of Education in the Division of General Internal Medicine at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill. His academic career has centered on his role as Residency Program Director at UNC.
Currently, Dr. Berkowitz serves as a member of the ABIM Internal Medicine Exam Writing Committee and the ABIM Council, and as Chair of the Alliance for Academic Medicine’s Task Force on Education Redesign of Graduate Medical Education. He has served as President of the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine and as Chair of the In-training Examination Test Writing Committee of the American College of Physicians.
Dr. Berkowitz earned his medical degree at Ohio State University College of Medicine. He did his residency and chief residency in the Department of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and later completed fellowship training in hematology at Washington University and UNC.
John (Jack) R. Boulet
Dr. Boulet is Associate Vice President, Research and Data Resources, for the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER®). He is also Assistant Vice President, Research and Evaluation, for the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG®).
For the past 17 years, Dr. Boulet has worked on the development of performance-based credentialing assessments in medicine. He has published extensively in the field of medical education, focusing specifically on measurement issues pertaining to performance-based assessments, including objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and various mannequin-based evaluation methodologies. Dr. Boulet currently serves on the editorial boards for Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, Education for Health, and Simulation in Healthcare. He is the deputy editor for Medical Education.
Dr. Coleman, a board certified internist and infectious disease specialist, is the John Wade Professor and Chair of the Department of Medicine at the Boston University School of Medicine, and Physician-in-Chief at Boston Medical Center. He has had a long-standing interest in basic mechanisms of macrophage function and the role of cytokines in regulating host defenses. His recent work has focused on medical professionalism in medical education and clinical practice.
Prior to assuming his current position, Dr. Coleman was Chief of Medical Service at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System and Interim Chair of the Department of Medicine at Yale University School of Medicine.
He serves on the Board of Trustees of the Boston Medical Center, on the Board of Directors of the Faculty Practice Plan of Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, and is a member of the Executive Committee at Boston University School of Medicine. Dr. Coleman is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians and an at-large member of the American Board of Internal Medicine Board of Directors. He is also a member of the Association of Professors of Medicine (APM) and serves on the editorial board of Infection.
A graduate of Stanford University, Dr. Coleman completed his medical degree at the University of California at San Francisco. He did his residency and fellowship in the Department of Internal Medicine at Yale University, where he also served as Chief Resident.
Dr. Emanuel is the Vice Provost for Global Initiatives, the Diane v.S. Levy and Robert M. Levy University Professor, and Chair of the Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the University of Pennsylvania. He is a Penn Integrates Knowledge Professor and holds appointments in the Wharton School of Business and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Until January 2011, Dr. Emanuel served as a Special Advisor on Health Policy to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and National Economic Council. From 1997 to 2011, he served as the founding Chair of the Department of Bioethics at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Prior to his position at the NIH, he was an Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School and on the faculty at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
Dr. Emanuel currently serves as a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress and has published widely on health care reform, international research ethics, end of life care issues and the physician-patient relationship in the New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, JAMA and many other medical journals. Dr. Emanuel is also an Op-Ed contributor to The New York Times.
After graduating from Amherst College, he received his master’s degree from Oxford University in biochemistry. He received his medical degree from Harvard Medical School and his doctorate in political philosophy from Harvard University. Dr. Emanuel completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at Boston’s Beth Israel Hospital and his oncology fellowship at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
Dr. Eva is Senior Scientist in the Centre for Health Education Scholarship, Professor and Director of Educational Research and Scholarship in the Department of Medicine at the University of British Columbia. He completed his PhD in Cognitive Psychology (McMaster University) in 2001 and became Editor-in-Chief for the journal Medical Education in 2008. He maintains a number of international appointments including the University of Maastricht (Netherlands) and the University of Bern (Switzerland) and has consulted broadly around the globe including advisory roles for the National Board of Medical Examiners (US) and the Medical Council of Canada. He is founding Co-director of the Maastricht-Canadian Masters of Health Professional Education program.
His current research interests are broadly defined within the context of research into educational practices within the health professions. They include research into: the value and limits of subjective judgment; the promotion and assessment of non-cognitive characteristics in professional practice; the context specific nature of performance; the conceptualization, nature and use of self-assessment; the psychological processes that impact upon one’s responsiveness to feedback and the nature of clinical expertise. Recent awards for this work include the MILES Award for Mentoring, Innovation, and Leadership in Education Scholarship from the Asia-Pacific Medical Education Conference; the John Ruedy Award for Innovation in Medical Education from the Association of Faculties of Medicine in Canada and the Outstanding Achievement Award from the Medical Council of Canada.
Dr. Eytan, who is board certified in family practice, currently works as a Director at Kaiser Permanente, within The Permanente Federation, LLC. He is based at The Kaiser Permanente Center for Total Health as physician partner to the Executive Director.
His experience is in working with large medical groups and technologists to leverage health information technology to ensure patients and their families have an active role in their own health care. Dr. Eytan’s clinical interests are preventive care and reducing disparities in health status among vulnerable populations. He is a regular user of social media tools to promote open leadership.
Dr. Eytan attended medical school at the University of Arizona, his Master of Public Health degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and his Master of Science, Health Services degree from the University of Washington. He completed his residency training at Group Health Cooperative and his fellowship training in the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program at the University of Washington in 2000.
Dr. Johnson, who is board certified in internal medicine and medical oncology, is the Donald W. Seldin Distinguished Chair in Internal Medicine and Chairman of the Department of Internal Medicine at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. In addition to serving on the ABIM Foundation Board of Trustees, he is Chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine Board of Directors. Previously he served on the ABIM Subspecialty Board on Medical Oncology (2001-2011) and chaired the Board from 2007 until 2011.
From 1983 to 2010, he was a member of the faculty at the Vanderbilt University Medical School where he held the Cornelius A. Craig Chair of Medical and Surgical Oncology and served as the Director of the Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology and Deputy Director of the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, of which he was a founding member.
In 2004-2005, Dr. Johnson served as President of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), during which time he helped advance ASCO’s quality of care activity known as the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (or QOPI®). QOPI serves as a Practice Improvement Module for ABIM. He also led an effort to establish ASCO’s Cancer Survivorship Program. Dr. Johnson has served on the Food and Drug Administration’s Oncology Drug Advisory Committee, as Chairman of the Thoracic Committee of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and on the Board of Directors of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer and the LiveSTRONG Foundation. He has authored more than 350 peer reviewed articles and 40 book chapters and edited four oncology textbooks.
Dr. Johnson earned his medical degree from the Medical College of Georgia and obtained his medical oncology training at Vanderbilt University.
Rebecca Lipner, PhD, is Senior Vice President of Evaluation, Research and Development at the American Board of Internal Medicine, where she oversees a team of research design and analysis experts who employ both qualitative and quantitative methods to ensure and enhance the high quality of assessment programs across the ABIM enterprise while disseminating evidence-based research findings to the public. In this role she ensures that ABIM assessment products remain relevant to the practice of internal medicine and identifies new possibilities and innovations in assessment and technology that guide research and development initiatives.
Dr. Lipner was VP of Psychometrics and Research Analysis at the American Board of Internal Medicine, where she was responsible for the scoring, statistical analysis, standard-setting, equating, security and evaluation of measurement properties for ABIM assessment products including innovative items types such as procedural simulation. She also oversees quantitative research analysis ranging from internal medicine workforce trends to health outcomes research. In her previous role as Director of Psychometrics for ABIM, she was involved in the implementation of new programs in maintenance of certification and computer-based testing.
Prior to joining ABIM, Dr. Lipner held a variety of teaching and faculty positions at Drexel University, St. Joseph’s University and the University of Pittsburgh, where she taught undergraduate and graduate courses in statistics, tests and measurement, experimental design, systems analysis and design, and expert systems. Dr. Lipner received the Research in Medical Education T. Hale Ham Award for New Investigators in 2003.
Her research interests include computer-adaptive testing, Bayesian methodology, high-stakes testing and assessment, statistical modeling, experimental design and the use of simulators in testing. Dr. Lipner is a frequent speaker on these subjects and is widely published in professional journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association, Annals of Internal Medicine, Academic Medicine, Applied Measurement in Education and the Journal of Educational Measurement.
Dr. Lipner received a doctorate in Information Systems from Drexel University and a master’s degree in Quantitative Psychology from the University of Pittsburgh. She graduated summa cum laude from City College of New York, where she received a bachelor’s degree in Mathematics and Psychology. She is a member of the American Educational Research Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges, Generalists in Medical Education, National Council on Measurement in Education, AcademyHealth and the Association of Test Publishing, where she served as Program Committee Chair and Vice-Chair from 2006-2008. She currently chairs the American Board of Medical Specialties’ Psychometric Advisory Group and serves as a consultant to the committee on research and evaluation procedures.
Ms. Mann is a special counsel in the Division of Investment Management at the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, where she specializes in regulation of mutual funds and other registered investment companies under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
In her spare time, she is a patient advocate with a longstanding interest in cardiovascular disease. Her daughter was diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) – a genetic disease that causes premature heart disease – in 2001 at age eight. Ms. Mann participates in an online community of FH patients and their family members, responding to questions and providing support. She also uses social media to spread information on health-related topics. She is a member of the editorial board of Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, the first patient advocate to serve in that capacity for an American Heart Association journal.
Ms. Mann earned her law degree from the University of Michigan Law School, where she was executive editor of the Michigan Law Review.
Dr. McGaghie is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Ralph P. Leischner, Jr., Institute for Medical Education at the Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine in Maywood, IL. He was formerly the Jacob R. Suker, MD, Professor of Medical Education and Professor of Preventive Medicine at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois where he served from 1992 to 2012. He has previously held faculty positions at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago (1974-78) and at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine (1978-92). Dr. McGaghie’s research and writing in medical education and preventive medicine ranges widely including such topics as personnel and program evaluation, research methodology, medical simulations, attitude measurement, medical student selection, concept mapping, curriculum development, faculty development, standardized patients and geriatrics.
He serves on the editorial boards of four scholarly journals including Medical Teacher, Advances in Health Sciences Education, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, and Simulation in Healthcare. Dr. McGaghie served on the Research Advisory Committee for Academic Medicine (1999 to 2001) and reviews manuscripts for many other scholarly journals including the Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, The New England Journal of Medicine, Medical Education and The American Statistician. He has been awarded research and training grants from a variety of NIH Institutes (e.g., NHLBI, NIA) and eight private foundations (e.g., Josiah C. Macy, Jr. Foundation, Charles E. Culpeper Foundation). Dr. McGaghie has served on several National Institutes of Health and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Study Sections (NHLBI, NIA, HUD) and as a grant application referee for several private foundations including the NBME Stemmler Fund and the Spencer Foundation. He has served as a consultant to a variety of professional organizations including the American Board of Medical Specialties, the ABIM Foundation, the American Physical Therapy Association and to universities and medical schools worldwide. Dr. McGaghie has authored or edited eight books and has published more than 250 journal articles, textbook chapters and book reviews in health professions education, simulation-based education, preventive medicine and related fields.
André Rupp, PhD, is the Research Director for the Innovations in the Development and Evaluation of Automated Scoring (IDEAS) Group in the Assessment Innovations Research Center at the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in Princeton, NJ. He manages a research team whose interdisciplinary work focuses supports the development, deployment and evaluation of automated scoring methodologies for constructed responses. Put differently, the work of his team supports quality control and validation efforts for the automated scoring engines as well as associated professional development efforts for responsible score usage. The assessment contexts to which these methodologies are applied include high-stake, large-scale assessments as well as formative learning environments that utilize both more traditional and more innovative assessment tasks. The work products that can be analyzed with the automated scoring tools include essay responses, short constructed responses, spoken conversations, as well as, in the future, sequences of actions from digital learning environments.
Dr. Rupp’s personal research interests also center around cognitively-grounded assessment approaches and associated statistical models, which broadly fall under the umbrella terms, diagnostic measurement/cognitively diagnostic assessment and diagnostic classification models (DCMs)/cognitive diagnosis models. To this end, he has worked on research around model criticism and refinement through simulation studies and applied work. From an interdisciplinary perspective, he is currently most interested in exploring how an evidence-centered design framework for assessment design, scoring and reporting—as well as associated use models—can be put to practical use for researchers who are interested in creating integrated diagnostic assessment systems with automated scoring capabilities. Prior to coming to ETS, Dr. Rupp was an Associate Professor in the Human Development and Quantitative Methodology Department in the College of Education at the University of Maryland.
Dr. Sepúlveda is an IBM Fellow and Vice President of Health Industries Research for the IBM Corporation. In this position, he leads a global team of health industry subject matters experts guiding applied research in diverse disciplines for health care systems solutions and transformation in mature and rapid growth countries world wide. He previously served as IBM VP Integrated Health Services and led health policy, strategy, health benefits design and purchasing, occupational health, wellness and health productivity for IBM, globally.
Dr. Sepúlveda is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians, the American College of Preventive Medicine and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. He was elected an honorary member of the American Academy of Family Medicine, and in addition to serving as a member of the ABIM Foundation Board of Trustees, also serves on the Commonwealth Fund Commission for a High Performance Health System and the Institute of Medicine’s Population Health and Public Health Practice Board. Dr. Sepúlveda also serves as chair of the Global Business Group on Health and the Institute for Health Benefits Innovation Research at the Employee benefits Research Institute.
Dr. Sepúlveda received his medical degree and Master in Public Health degree from Harvard University. He completed residencies in internal medicine at the University of California San Francisco Hospitals, Occupational/Environmental Medicine at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, trained in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, and completed a fellowship in internal medicine at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.
Candace Thille, PhD is an Assistant Professor of Education at Stanford’s Graduate School of Education and Senior Research Fellow for the Office of the Vice Provost for Online Learning. She is also the founding director of the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University.
Dr. Thille’s research focuses on applying results from the learning sciences to the design, implementation, and evaluation of open Web-based learning environments, and in using those environments to engage in research to refine theories of human learning. In this capacity, she serves as a redesign scholar for the National Center for Academic Transformation; a fellow of the International Society for Design and Development in Education; on the Assessment 2020 Task Force of the American Board of Internal Medicine; on the technical advisory committee for the Association of American Universities STEM initiative; and on the Global Executive Advisory board for Hewlett Packard’s Catalyst Initiative.
Dr. Thille notes that she is seen as a skeptic of massive open online courses, or MOOC, “because of the current emphasis on enrolling massive numbers of learners rather than on designing environments based on what we know about how people learn and how to best support a greater diversity of learners.” At Stanford, she will combine the MOOC focus on scale with an evidence-based collaborative approach for educational technology development, delivery, assessment and research. “Semantic data collected from student engagement with the online learning environments we create,” Thille says, “can be used to give real-time feedback to students and instructors to improve the teaching and learning experience, and to designers and learning theorists to direct course improvement and to expand and refine theories of learning.”
Dr. Thille holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley, a master’s in information technology from Carnegie Mellon and a doctorate in education from the University of Pennsylvania. She has served on a U.S. Department of Education working group, co-authoring the “National Education Technology Plan,” and on the working group of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology that produced the “Engage to Excel” report for improving STEM education.
Dr. Verghese is Senior Associate Chair and Professor for the Theory and Practice of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine. A graduate of Madras University, Verghese trained as a resident and chief resident in internal medicine at East Tennessee State University, and as a fellow in infectious diseases at Boston University. He has served on the faculty at East Tennessee State University, the University of Iowa, Texas Tech University and the University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, where he was the founding director of the Center for Medical Humanities and Ethics. He is board certified in internal medicine, pulmonary diseases and infectious diseases. He served on the Board of Directors of the American Board of Internal Medicine. In 2011, he was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.
From 1990 to 1991, Dr. Verghese attended the Iowa Writers Workshop at the University of Iowa where he obtained a Master of Fine Arts degree. His first book, My Own Country, about AIDS in rural Tennessee, was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award for 1994 and was made into a movie. His second book, The Tennis Partner, was a New York Times notable book and a national bestseller. His third book, Cutting for Stone, was published by Knopf and has been a New York Times Book Review bestseller for over two years and is being made into a movie. He has been the commencement speaker at many medical schools and has honorary degrees from Swarthmore College and Northern Illinois University. He has published extensively in the medical literature, and his writing has appeared in The New Yorker, Sports Illustrated, The Atlantic Monthly, Esquire, Granta, The New York Times Magazine, The Wall Street Journal and elsewhere.
Dr. Wachter, a board certified internist, is Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Associate Chairman of UCSF’s Department of Medicine, Chief of the Medical Service at UCSF Medical Center and Chief of UCSF’s 50-faculty Division of Hospital Medicine. He is the immediate Past Chair of the Board of Directors of the American Board of Internal Medicine and is a Trustee of the ABIM Foundation.
Dr. Wachter, who has published 250 articles and six books, is an expert in patient safety, quality and the organization of hospital care. He coined the term “hospitalist” in a 1996 New England Journal of Medicine article, and is generally considered the academic leader of the field, the fastest growing specialty in modern medical history. He is a past President of the Society of Hospital Medicine.
He is also a national leader in the fields of patient safety and health care quality. He is editor of AHRQ WebM&M, an online case-based patient safety journal, and AHRQ Patient Safety Network, the leading federal patient safety portal. Together, these websites receive three million visits each year. He is a past recipient of the John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Award, the nation’s top honor in patient safety, and was a 2011 U.S.-U.K. Fulbright scholar, studying safety at Imperial College London. He has written two books on patient safety, including Understanding Patient Safety, whose second edition was published in 2012. His blog, Wachter’s World, is one of the nation’s most popular health care blogs. Modern Physician magazine has ranked him as one of the 50 most influential physicians in the U.S. for each of the last five years, the only academic physician to achieve this recognition.
Dr. Wachter received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and completed residency and chief residency in internal medicine at UCSF. He was also a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at Stanford University.
Patrick Alguire – Ex-Officio Observer
Dr. Alguire, a board certified internist, is Senior Vice President for Medical Education at the American College of Physicians (ACP). In this capacity, Dr. Alguire oversees all the educational products, programs and live meetings for the largest specialty professional society in the United States. He is Clinical Professor of Medicine at Jefferson Medical School in Philadelphia.
From 1998 to 2011, he directed the Department of Education and Career Development at the ACP and was responsible programs, products and services relating to undergraduate and graduate medical education as well as the Clinical Skills Program, an educational initiative designed to improve the examination, procedural and communication skills of physicians. Additional duties included the role of editor-in-chief of MKSAP 16, MKSAP for Students, MKSAP for Students Digital, Board Basics, Internal Medicine Essentials for Clerkship Students, Internal Medicine In-Training Examination and Teaching in Your Office.
From 1995 to 1998, Dr. Alguire was a Professor of Medicine at the University of Florida and Chair of the Faculty Development Committee.
From 1979 to 1995, Dr. Alguire was on the faculty at Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, achieving the rank of Professor and Chief of the Division of General Medicine. There, he was Program Director for the Internal Medicine residency program and co-director of the Problem-Based Learning Curriculum for the second year medical students. Dr. Alguire also served as faculty member and acting chair of the Michigan State University Primary Care Faculty Development Fellowship Program. During his career at Michigan State University, he received the Distinguished Clinician Award, Distinguished Alumni Award, and numerous teaching awards from students and residents.
Dr. Alguire graduated from Michigan State University College of Human Medicine in 1975. He completed a categorical residency in internal medicine at St. Joseph Mercy Hospital in Ann Arbor Michigan.
Steven Durning – Ex-Officio Observer
Dr. Durning is a board certified general internist and a Professor of Medicine and Pathology at the Uniformed Services University (USU). He currently directs a medical student course on clinical reasoning at USU.
In addition to these roles, he is the principal investigator of the Long Term Career Outcome Study at USU, a consultant to the American Board of Internal Medicine, an Associate Editor for Academic Medicine, and he also serves on a number of national and international organizations.
Dr. Durning earned his medical degree from the University of Pittsburgh and completed internal medicine residency training at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Dr. Durning also completed a PhD from Maastricht University, which addressed the influence of contextual factors on clinical reasoning and in particular focused on advancing our understanding of context specificity.